From the foregoing it becomes apparent that the mental or intellectual principle comprises the faculties which constitute the reasoning or objective mind, such as observation, discrimination, calculation, deduction and logic. It harbors the executive qualities and prompts voluntary action. It is a thinking apparatus and, in itself, is cold, calculating and exact. It is the scat of judgment apart from sentiment and feeling, and moderates the qualities of sympathy and mercy.
The reasoning or objective mind deals only with facts and data gathered from observation and experience. This is in agreement with materialistic and monistic science and philosophy; but these systems leave out of consideration that which makes thinking, reasoning and philosophizing a possibility, namely, the psychic principle. "While studying and explaining the phenomena of life, they try to exclude life itself from the scheme of things.
In the limited space of this treatise I can deal only very briefly with the relationships between the intellectual and psychic principles and the brain and nervous system. I have elaborated this in detail in Vol. IV of this series, dealing with natural eugenics.
In the following we shall trace the relationship of the three basic principles to the physical organism. The three basic principles of the human entity herein described sustain a definite relationship to the three principal divisions of the great brain or cerebrum, and through these to the three basic functions of the organism already described. It should be understood that these correspondences or relationships have nothing to do with the location of phrenological centers. Long continued careful observation and practical experience have revealed the fact that the three main divisions of the cerebrum and the three basic functions of alimentation, respiration and generation are closely allied and interdependent.
The Great Brain
The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres, occupying the greater part of the cranial cavity which is formed by the union of the bones of the skull. Bach hemisphere is divided by deep fissures into three separate portions called lobes. They are named according to their location in reference to the bones of the skull which form their outer protection, as follows: the occipito-temporal lobes, the parietal lobes and the frontal lobes. The occipito-temporal lobes are the seat of the material or the physical principle; the parietal lobes are the seat of the psychical or moral principle, and the frontal lobes are the seat of the mental or intellectual functions. The following illustration will serve to show these different areas of the brain.
Fig. 1. Side view of cerebrum, showing lobes and fissures.
The degree of development in the various brain areas will determine the relative strength of the three basic principles in any one individual. For instance, an individual possessing the greatest brain development in the occipito-temporal lobes of the brain is of the physical type, while an individual with a high, straight, prominent forehead with the greatest brain development in the frontal lobes, is placed in the intellectual class. The individual who has his greatest and best brain development in the parietal region, or at the topmost portion of the head, belongs to the moral class.
The classification of individuals in this manner makes it possible to determine the relative strength of the various organ systems. The three main organ systems are the digestive, respiratory and generative, and there is a direct correspondence between the brain development and the strength of the three basic physiological functions.
Good development in the physical brain region (occipito-temporal lobes) establishes the fact that the individual possesses strong digestive action. The development of the moral portion of the brain (parietal lobes) determines the strength of generative action, while the degree of development in the mental portion of the brain (frontal lobes) will determine the strength of the respiratory action.
The ideal human being, of course, would be the one in whom these three principles were balanced; or in other words, in whom the mental, moral and physical portions of the brain were equally developed. Such individuals, however, are of rare occurrence. The more nearly equal these three principles are in development and vitality in any one individual, the more perfect he is--mentally, morally and physically.
No person today could be totally lacking in any one of these principles without being marked as a defective. If the physical principle is very weak he will not survive infancy. If the intellect, or the frontal lobes, are only slightly developed he will be an idiot. If the psychical or moral area is undeveloped the individual lacks intuition and imagination, and is therefore limited in inventive and creative ability. Such an individual is lacking in the intuitive perception of moral, ethical and religious principles. If, on the other hand, the psychical principle greatly predominates over the intellectual the individual tends to emotionalism, is negative and subjective to outside influences and becomes an easy prey to hypnotic and mediumistic control.
Every individual must possess the three basic qualities to some degree, and the proportion of them determines not only the individual's habits and characteristics, his likes and dislikes, and his general temperament, but also his susceptibility to abnormalities and diseases of one form or another.
That portion of the brain which shows the greatest development in any one individual is called the "base", while the other two weaker areas are called the "inclinations", the stronger being the "first" and the weaker the "second" inclination.
The greater the development of the inclinations the more difficult it becomes to determine the base. The base is there, however, and is the foundation on which the individual is built. The base has a definite value, and the inclinations are relative to it. The latter may both be very weak or they may both be strong, or one may be strong and the other weak. All degrees of development occur; no two individuals are exactly alike. Where both inclinations are of a low degree of development, the base is more pronounced by contrast.
As we have shown, each principle has its particular correlated group of organs and functions in the body. These are known as the fundamental organs, and the organ which corresponds to the individual's basic principle becomes his basic organ. For example, if an individual be physically based, his basic organ is the liver, which is the principal organ of the digestive system. The liver in that individual is the strongest organ in his body, and is the one on which he depends to the largest degree for his support.
In a morally based individual the generative organs are the strongest; while in a mentally based individual the lungs are the organs upon which that individual depends for his main support.
There is no limit to the combinations that can be made with these three principles, any more than there is a limit to the number of shades that can be derived through the mixture of the three basic colors, red, blue and yellow. By determining as nearly as possible the base of an individual and the relative strength of his inclinations, we are able to gauge his individual index.
By individual index we mean the relative degree of activity on the part of the three principal organ systems under normal conditions. So, for example, the individual who is materially based with a first moral inclination and a second intellectual inclination, is strongest in the digestive organs. His greatest weakness lies in the lungs, while the generative organs are intermediate.
From this it follows that disease processes will manifest first in the weakest organ or group of organs which belong to the second inclination. Next to succumb will be the organs of first inclination. The chances for recovery are good as long as the basic organ and its aids are in fair condition and able to compensate for the weakness and deficiencies of the organs of first and second inclinations. When, however, the organism becomes weakened and diseased at its base or foundation, then the superstructure will soon give way and succumb to nature's destructive processes.
Thus basic diagnosis aids the physician to locate the organs of least resistance and thereby the seat of disease, as well as to estimate the chances for recovery. For instance, as long as a person with a strong physical base is endowed with good digestive power and assimilation, disorders of the respiratory and generative organs will be easily overcome, but when the liver, stomach and intestines of such a person become seriously affected by degenerative processes, then destruction in the lungs or kidneys will soon result in fatal termination.
Thus basic diagnosis enables the physician to express a more accurate opinion as to whether the case will improve, or whether the individual will continue to decline. It also enables him to determine which organ system needs the greatest attention from a therapeutic standpoint.
Application of Basic Diagnosis
Correspondences Between Brain Areas and Organic Functions:
Occipito-temporal lobes (lower portion of cerebrum)-- digestive system.
Parietal lobes (top portion of cerebrum)--generative system.
Frontal lobes (front portion of cerebrum)--respiratory system.
It is only in rare cases and in exceptionally well developed individuals that we find all three brain regions and consequently all three organ systems developed to an equal degree and capable of exercising the same degree of function. In the vast majority of individuals at least one of these organ systems is markedly weaker than the other two. When disease begins to affect such an individual it is this weaker group of organs which first begins to manifest changes in function and ultimately in structure. To describe all the changes as they occur and the manner in which a disease process progresses, and how and why it is reflected from one part of the organism to another, would require the writing of a special volume on this subject alone. To prove these facts would necessitate the recitation of the life histories of a long list of cases from which these statements have been verified. Enough has been given to enable the physician and the intelligent layman to continue the study of this interesting subject and to profit by its practical application.
To recapitulate: As a disease process develops, the resistance of the weaker organs is broken down first and the condition is then carried to the next stronger group of organs, and finally to the strongest or basic organ. When the disease process reaches the basic organ, the individual has entered upon the last stages of pathological change. If the disease process continues unchecked the individual will finally succumb as disease destroys his stronghold.
In the following illustrations only the general types of individuals will be considered. There are six general types classified according to their base and inclinations. The base represents the strongest system; the first inclination, the system of intermediate strength; the second inclination, the weakest organ system.
1. General physical type.
(A) Base, physical, first inclination, moral; second inclination, mental.
Strongest organs, digestive; basic organ, liver.
Intermediate organs, reproductive (generative glands and system of ductless glands).
Weakest organs, lungs.
Prominent symptoms and preliminary healing crises: Those emanating from the generative organs and the ductless glands (thyroid, suprarenals, pituitary) in cases where the disease changes have not yet reached the basic organ.
Diseases likely to prove fatal if not checked in time, or if improperly treated, are those producing destructive changes in the digestive organs, and in the liver--diabetes, cancer of the liver, cirrhosis of the liver, and advanced Bright's disease.
Early symptoms of failure of the liver manifest themselves in the form of rheumatism, which may be reflected to the heart.
Prognosis: Good, in cases where destructive changes have not yet occurred in the liver. In other words, where the principal symptoms are in the intermediate organs and the liver is still capable of compensating for the functional failure of other organs, this individual still has a chance to retrace his steps and recover his health under natural treatment. In this case the liver, in its endeavor to compensate, may increase its activity to such a degree that symptoms will arise. These symptoms, however, are functional and should not be considered alarming. It is only when the liver's function begins to fail, due to destructive changes in that organ, that the prognosis becomes rather grave.
Treatment. General natural therapeutic treatment and such natural methods as can be directed especially to the liver for the purpose of relieving it of work or of increasing its functional activity, the first purpose being to maintain compensation in the basic organ. The most vitally essential part of such treatment consists of periods of rational fasting, interspersed with periods of strict eliminative diet until the liver has had opportunity to cleanse the blood stream of surplus waste products.